Titanium (Ti) is a strong, low-density metal. Coloured silver, it is corrosion-resistant against sea-water, chlorine and aqua regia. Discovered in 1791 in the U.K., it is extracted from a variety of mineral deposits using either the Kroll or Hunter process. Listed as atomic number 22, it can be found in the periodic table in d-block, period 4, group 4. It is often alloyed with aluminium, iron and other elements to create robust, light-weight alloys for use in a variety of industrial applications. In its pure form, it is soluble in concentrated acids but insoluble in water. It is not toxic however in powder form or in the form of metal shavings, it is a fire hazard and when heated it can be an explosion hazard. For this reason, powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics. Standard fire extinguishing methods such as water and carbon dioxide do not work with Titanium and dry powder Class D materials are the only effective solution.
Known for its corrosion resistant properties and its very high strength-to-density ratio – the highest of all metallic elements – it can be strong as certain steels however it has a much lower density, making it ideal for many industrial purposes.
This metal is used in a wide variety of applications including
- Aerospace, Armour Plating
- Consumer Goods e.g. sports equipment
- Nuclear Waste
- Industrial Manufacturing
- Medical Devices
- Pigments, additives and coatings
- Dental e.g. implants
The chemical properties of Titanium are listed below
|Thermal neutron cross section||5.6 barns/atom|
|Electrode potential||0.20 V|
|Ionic radius||0.680 A|
|X-ray absorption edge||2.497 A|
|Electrochemical equivalent||0.4468 g/A/h|
The following table discusses the physical properties of titanium.
|Density||4.50 g/cm3||0.163 lb/in3|
|Melting point||1650-1670 °C||3000-3040 °F|
|Boiling point||3287 °C||5949 °F|
The thermal properties of titanium are tabulated below.
|Thermal expansion co-efficient (@20-100°C/68-212°F)||8.90 µm/m°C||4.94 µin/in°F|
|Thermal conductivity||17 W/mK||118 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|